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初中英语语法知识点:被动语态

http://chuzhong.eol.cn/  来源:中国教育在线  作者:  2015-11-13  字体:  

  初中英语学习最难的是语法,因为英语的语法跟汉语的语法有很大的不同。其中被动语态是初中英语学习的重点和难点。下面为大家讲解一下初中英语被动语态特点和用法。

  一、被动语态的构成形式

  1. 被动语态的基本时态变化

  被动语态通常为十种时态的被动形式, 被动语态由be+过去分词构成,be随时态的变化而变化。以do为例,各种时态的被动语态形式为:

  1) am/is/are +done (过去分词) 一般现在时

  例Visitors are requested not to touch the exhibits.

  2) has /have been done 现在完成时

  例All the preparations for the task have been completed, and we're ready to start.

  3) am/is /are being done 现在进行时

  例A new cinema is being built here.

  4) was/were done 一般过去时

  例I was given ten minutes to decide whether I should reject the offer.

  5) had been done 过去完成时

  例 By the end of last year, another new gymnasium had been completed in Beijing.

  6) was/were being done 过去进行时

  例A meeting was being held when I was there.

  7) shall/will be done 一般将来时

  例Hundreds of jobs will be lost if the factory closes.

  8) should/would be done 过去将来时

  例The news would be sent to the soldier's mother as soon as it arrived.

  9) shall/will have been done 将来完成时(少用)

  例The project will have been completed before July.

  2. 被动语态的特殊结构形式

  1)带情态动词的被动结构。其形式为:情态动词+be+过去分词。

  例The baby should be taken good care of by the baby-sitter.

  2) 有些动词可以有两个宾语,在用于被动结构时,可以把主动结构中的一个宾语变为主语,另一宾语仍然保留在谓语后面。通常变为主语的是间接宾语。

  例His mother gave him a present for his birthday. 可改为 He was given a present by his mother for his birthday.

  3) 当“动词+宾语+宾语补足语”结构变为被动语态时,将宾语变为被动结构中的主语,其余不动。

  例Someone caught the boy smoking a cigarette. 可改为The boy was caught smoking a cigarette.

  4)在使役动词have, make, get以及感官动词see, watch, notice, hear, feel, observe等后面不定式作宾语补语时,在主动结构中不定式to要省略,但变为被动结构时,要加to。

  例Someone saw a stranger walk into the building. 可改为A stranger was seen to walk into the building.

  5) 有些相当于及物动词的动词词组,如“动词+介词”,“动词+副词”等,也可以用于被动结构,但要把它们看作一个整体,不能分开。其中的介词或副词也不能省略。

  例The meeting is to be put off till Friday.

  3. 非谓语动词的被动语态

  v.+ing 形式及不定式 to do 也有被动语态(一般时态和完成时态) 。

  例I don't like being laughed at in the public.

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